By Claude Hagège
This pioneering examine relies on an research of over 2 hundred languages, together with African, Amerindian, Australian, Austronesian, Indo-European and Eurasian (Altaic, Caucasian, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Dravidian, Uralic), Papuan, and Sino-Tibetan. Adpositions are a nearly common a part of speech. English has prepositions; a few languages, akin to jap, have postpositions; others have either; and but others types that aren't particularly both. As grammatical instruments they mark the connection among components of a sentence: commonly one aspect governs a noun or noun-like note or word whereas the opposite features as a predicate. From the syntactic perspective, the supplement of an adposition depends upon a head: during this final sentence, for instance, a head is the supplement of on whereas on a head relies on relies and on is the marker of this dependency. Adpositions lie on the center of the grammar of so much languages, their usefulness making them recurrent in daily speech and writing. Claude Hagege examines their morphological beneficial properties, syntactic capabilities, and semantic and cognitive homes. He does so for the subsets either one of adpositions that categorical the family members of agent, sufferer, and beneficiary, and of these which mark house, time, accompaniment, or tool. Adpositions usually govern case and are often progressively grammaticalized into case. the writer considers the complete set of functionality markers, together with case, that seem as adpositions and, in doing so, throws mild on tactics of morphological and syntactic swap in several languages and language households. His publication could be welcomed through typologists and by way of syntacticians and morphologists of all theoretical stripes.
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Additional resources for Adpositions
TP [ DP the [ NP tall man]] i - CASE appears [TP [ DP the [ NP tall man]] i CASE to have been kissed [ DP the [NP tall man]] i -CASE]] If the DP chain of (58) is reduced as in (59a), no further application of FF-Elimination is required to delete the Case-feature of the tall man in order for Full Interpretation to be satisﬁed; this feature has been deleted and is therefore invisible at PF. The PF output in (56a) is then derived after further applications of phonological rules. By contrast, if the DP chain is reduced as in (59b) or (59c), the convergent PF outputs in (56b) and (56c) are obtained only if FF-Elimination deletes the unchecked Case-feature of the copy that survives.
Was kissed John. c. John was kissed. From a minimalist perspective, the unacceptability of the sentence (19a) resulting from the derivation in (18) raises an additional puzzle. The derivation of either (19b) or (19c) from (18c) presumably involves an operation eliminating one of the copies of John, whereas no such operation is invoked in (19a). Thus, were the derivations of (19a), on the one hand, and the derivations of (19b) and (19c), on the other, to be compared for economy purposes, the derivation of (19a) should outrank the other two because it is more economical in the number of operations that it requires.
Two pieces of evidence indicate that this is indeed the case. Consider the data in (89). (89) Argentinean Spanish (dialect II) a. Yo se lo iba a decir. ’ b. Yo iba a decirselo. I was-going to say-himCl -itCl c. *Yo se lo iba a decirselo. I himCl itCl was-going to say-himCl -itCl The data in (89a) and (89b) show that a clitic cluster also falls under the standard pattern of clitic placement seen in (84), with proclisis to the ﬁnite auxiliary or enclisis to the nonﬁnite verb. Given that dialect II also allows duplication with proclisis, as seen in (88), we should in principle expect duplication of the cluster se lo in (89c), as well.
Adpositions by Claude Hagège